The Science of Music & Sports Performance

Music and sports performance. How does music affect athletes? What does the science say? Is music a “type of legal, performance-enhancing drug”?

Research has shown listening to music while exercising can reduce an athlete’s rate of perceived effort. What does this mean exactly? Does the tempo have an impact? Why did USA Track & Field “ban the use of headphones and portable audio players” at its official races back in 2007?